VonOlivia Guy-Evans, released on September 15, 2021
vonSaul Mcleod, PhD
various parts ofcerebral cortexare involved in various functions, both cognitive and behavioral.
Brodmann areas are a way of mapping the cortex and its prominent features developed by Korbinian Brodmann, after whom the areas are named.
Using Brodmann's areas, the cerebral cortex can be divided into 52 areas, which are numbered consecutively. These areas are distinguished from microscopic anatomy by the shapes and types of cells and their connections.
Despite controversy over exactly where these tracks are located, Brodmann tracks are still commonly used today. However, some bands have been subdivided or are only present in non-human primates.
List of Brodmann areas
History of Brodmann's areas
Korbinian Brodmann (1868-1918) was a German neurologist who published research on cortical cytoarchitecture in many species, including humans. This publication contained what is believed to be the first map of the cerebral cortex based on variations in neural structure.
Brodmann (1909) carried out a detailed study of the cortex, observing how its layers, tissues, neurons, and other cells varied in structure and size. He identified and numbered several areas of the brain of many mammals, ending some of the considerable confusion in naming parts of the cortex that existed at the time.
Before Brodmann's research, some areas of the brain were beginning to be identified, such asBrocaEWernickesareas. These areas were identified after the discovery of damage in these areas, after the identification of language deficits in these individuals.
Brodmann's brain mapping goes further, detailing all functional areas of the cortex based on general anatomical features and cortical microstructure. Brodmann areas have been widely debated, debated and refined over the years and remain the best known and most used mapping of the cortex.
Brodmann Areas 1, 2 and 3 – Primary somatosensory cortex
The primary somatosensory cortex is responsible for processing bodily sensations. Receptors throughout the body pick up on these sensations, which are responsible for detecting touch, pain, temperature and the location of touch.
This region is also important for skillful, coordinated movement and motor learning.
Brodmann Area 4 – Primary motor cortex
The primary motor cortex is essential for initiating motor movements and for coordinating these movements. Each area of the motor cortex corresponds exactly to specific body parts on the contralateral side of the body.
For example, to move the left leg, part of the primary motor cortex in the right hemisphere is stimulated.
Brodmann Area 9 – Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Located in the frontal lobe, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is essential for “higher” cognitive functions such as working memory, planning, abstract reasoning, motor planning and organization.
Because of its importance in many executive functions, this area has multiple connections between the cortical and subcortical areas of the brain.
Brodmann Area 17 - Primary Visual Cortex
The primary visual cortex, located in the occipital lobes, is an essential structure for processing visual stimuli.
This area is the most studied visual area of the brain and is highly specialized in processing still and moving objects, as well as being good at recognizing patterns.
Brodmann Area 21 – Medium Time Spin
The middle temporal gyrus is one of the major gyri (crest) on the surface of the temporal lobes.
This area is thought to be involved in functions such as sound recognition and semantic retrieval, as well as semantic memory, language processing, and verbal mental arithmetic processing.
Brodmann-Areal 22 – Giro temporal superior
The superior temporal gyrus is also located in the temporal lobes and plays a role in verbal and non-verbal communication.
This area has been shown to be important in contributing to the processing of spatial and object information and in the processing of non-verbal social cues.
This area is also involved in short-term auditory memory and language production. Wernicke's area is also located in this area, a region that is associated with language comprehension and production.
Brodmann Areas 23, 24, 28 and 33 – cingulate gyrus
The cingulate gyrus is a large arched fold that covers the corpus callosum. It's an important part of the limbic system and helps regulate emotions and pain.
OgiroIt is believed to directly drive the body's conscious response to unpleasant experiences and is involved in anxiety and avoidance of negative stimuli. As the cingulate gyrus learns to avoid negative consequences, it also plays a role in memory.
Brodmann's Area 44 and 45 - Broca's Area
Broca's area is located in the frontal lobes and is an essential region for language production. This area is capable of putting together the elements of language, selecting information from different sources and helping to produce information about the motor movements necessary for spoken and written language.
Similarly, Broca's domain can help control syntactic processing mechanisms and build complex sentences and language patterns.
Location and Function of Broadmand Areas
- Brodmann areas 1, 2 and 3: Primary somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus) – responsible for processing somatic sensations.
- Brodmann-Areal 4: Primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus) - involved in the execution of movements.
- Brodmann-Areal 5: Somatosensory Association Cortex (superior parietal lobe) – an area for sensory input.
- Brodmann-Areal 6: Premotor cortex and supplementary motor cortex – helps control and plan movements.
- Brodmann-Areal 7: Somatosensory Association Cortex – an area for sensory input.
- Brodmann-Areal 8: Frontal eye fields – Role in controlling visual attention and eye movements.
- Brodmann-Areal 9: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – involved in cognitive functions such as working memory, attention and executive functions.
- Brodmann-Areal 10: Anterior prefrontal cortex – higher cognitive functions such as task management and planning.
- Brodmann-Areal 11 e 12: Orbitofrontal area (orbital gyrus, rectus gyrus, rostral gyrus and part of the superior frontal gyrus) - receives information about the sight of objects, as well as the reward value of taste.
- Brodmann-Areal 13 e 16: Insular Cortex – sensory processing, decision making and motor control.
- Brodmann-Areal 17: Primary visual cortex (V1) - interprets and processes visual information received by the eyes.
- Brodmann-Areal 18: Secondary visual cortex (V2) - – receives visual information for later analysis.
- Brodmann area 19: Associative visual cortex (V3, V4 and V5) - complex processing of visual information.
- Brodmann-Areal 20: Inferior temporal gyrus – processes visual information in the visual field and is involved in memory.
- Brodmann-Areal 21: Medium-temporal gyrus - processing of semantic memory, visual perception and language processing.
- Brodmann-Areal 22: Superior temporal gyrus (including Wernicke's area) - important for processing sounds and understanding speech.
- Brodmann-Areal 23, 24, 28 a 33: cingulate gyrus – part of the limbic system involved in processing emotions and regulating behavior.
- Brodmann-Areal 25: Subgenual area – a limbic area rich in serotonin transporters that works in conjunction with the other areas of the limbic system.
- Brodmannviertel 26: Ectosplenial part of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex - related to motor learning.
- Brodmann-Areal 27: Piriform cortex – related to the sense of smell.
- Brodmann-Areal 29: Retrosplenial cingulate cortex - associated with episodic memory and navigation.
- Brodmann-Areal 30: part of the cingulate cortex – an interface between emotion regulation, perception and action.
- Brodmann-Areal 31: Posterior dorsal cingulate cortex - a central node of the Default Mode Network (DMN), a set of brain structures with strong associations for activities during many cognitive tasks.
- Brodmann-Areal 32: Anterior dorsal cingulate cortex – processing for recognition and evaluation of social processes.
- Brodmann-Areal 34: Dorsal entorhinal cortex – involved in working memory.
- Brodmann-Areal 35 e 36: Dorsal entorhinal cortex – involved in working memory. Area 35 and 36 - perirhinal cortex and ectorhinal area - involved in working memory.
- Brodmann-Areal 37: Fusiform gyrus - Involved in higher level visual processing.
- Brodmann-Areal 38: Temporal pole – high-level visual area involved in visual cognition, facial recognition and visual memory.
- Brodmann-Areal 39: Angular gyrus - related to language and number processing, spatial awareness, memory recall and attention.
- Brodmann-Areal 40: Supramarginal gyrus – a role in phonological processing and emotional responses.
- Brodmann-Areal 41 e 42: Primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) – first relay station of auditory information in the cortex.
- Brodmann-Areal 43: Primary gustatory cortex – responsible for the perception of taste.
- Brodmann-Areal 44: part of Broca's area (pars opercularis, part of the inferior frontal gyrus) – associated with speech production and articulation.
- Brodmann-Areal 45: part of Broca's area (pars triangularis, part of the inferior frontal gyrus class="internal">) – associated with language production and articulation.
- Brodmann-Areal 46: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – involved in cognitive functions such as working memory, attention and executive functions.
- Brodmann-Areal 47: Pars orbitalis, part of the inferior frontal gyrus – role in language processing.
- Brodmann area 48: Retrosubicular area – emotion processing, coding and navigation.
- Brodmann-Areal 52: Parainsular area related to attention processing and enhancement.
About the author
Olivia Guy-Evans received her Bachelors Degree in Educational Psychology from Edge Hill University in 2015. She then received her Masters in Educational Psychology from the University of Bristol in 2019 Bristol for the past four years.
To reference this article:
Guy-Evans, O. (2021, June 15). Brodmann areas: anatomy and functions. Just psychology. www.simplypsychology.org/brodmann-areas.html
Brodmann K. 1909. Comparative theory of the localization of the cerebral cortex presented in its principles based on cellular structure. Leipzig: J.A.bart
Carter, R (2019). The Human Brain Book: An Illustrated Guide to Its Structure, Function, and Disorders (3rd ed.). DK.
Ferng, A. (2021, May 31). Brodmann areas. kenhub. https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/brodmann-areas
Hacking, C. Gaillard et al., (s.d.). Brodmann areas. radiopedia. Retrieved on August 6, 2021 at: https://radiopaedia.org/articles/brodmann-areas?lang=gb
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