ventricles of the brain (2023)

Author: Lorenzo Crumbie MBBS, BSc•Critical:Dimitrios Mytilinaios MD, PhD
Last revised: November 23, 2022
Reading time: 11 minutes

ventricles of the brain (1)

left lateral ventricle

left lateral ventricle


Hehuman brainit is so vital and delicate that it is completely enclosed in a bony vault to protect it from harm. To add even more protection, the brain is wrapped in threemeningeal layerstough mom, arachnoid andmotherfucker. However, even with all these layers, there is still space around the brain that makes it vulnerable to injury.

Therefore, this space is occupied by a clear fluid that suspends the brain within the cranial vault. the fluid(cerebrospinal fluid)It is produced in the ventricular system of the brain. There are four such hollow spaces in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): twolateral ventricles, athird ventricleit is afourth ventricle.

key facts
lateral ventriclesBody, anterior (frontal) horn, posterior (occipital) horn, inferior (temporal) horn,
third ventriclesupraoptical recess(superior to optic chiasm)infundibular recess(superior to the pituitary infundibulum),suprapineal recess(superior to the pineal gland)pineal recess (projects to the infundibulum of the pineal)
fourth ventricleLocated in the brainstem:
Piso- rhomboid cast
Here- superior and inferior medullary candle of the cerebellum
cisternsSuprasellar (chiasmatic), interpeduncular, prepontine, corpus callosum cistern
holesForames interventriculares (Monro):lateral ventricles -> third ventricle
Aqueduto cerebral (Sylvius):third ventricle -> fourth ventricle
Medium Aperture (Magendie):fourth ventricle ->subarachnoid space
Right and left side opening (Luschka):fourth ventricle -> subarachnoid space
clinical relationshydrocephalus

This article will examine the structure of this system and how it helps the brain.


  1. choroid plexus
  2. lateral ventricles
    1. Central part
    2. front horn
    3. temporary horn
    4. occipital horn
  3. third ventricle
  4. fourth ventricle
  5. cisterns
  6. Flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  7. hydrocephalus
  8. Fuentes

+ show all

choroid plexus

Each ventricle houses achoroid plexus. The vascular part of the pia mater, calledchoroid tissue, folds into the cavity of the ventricle and is covered by ependymal. containschoroidal epithelium, which is simply cubic or columnar underepithelium. The extensive folding of the membrane gives the structure an expansive surface area. The plexus capillaries are fenestrated with specific permeability.

Choroid plexus of the third ventricle

Choroid plexus of the third ventricle

(Video) 2-Minute Neuroscience: The Ventricles


Synonyms:Choroid plexus of the third ventricle

The choroid plexuses in each ventricle are responsible for the synthesis ofcerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The fluid consists of water and other components of plasma, amino acids and glucose that nourish brain tissue. In addition to providing nutrients for the brain to complete its metabolic activity, CSF travels through the ventricles and eventually surrounds the entire brain in thesubarachnoid space(between arachnoid mater and pia mater). Thus, it acts as a shock absorber in cases of mild or severe head trauma. The choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles produces the greatest amount of CSF, followed by the third ventricle and then the fourth ventricle.

lateral ventricles

Central part

body of lateral ventricle

The central part of the lateral ventricle.


Synonyms:The central part of the lateral ventricle, Body of the lateral ventricle

There are two C-shaped cavities calledlateral ventricles; one in eachcerebral hemisphere. These ventricles have three horns that project into the lobes that give them their name. Hecentral partof the lateral ventricle is located in the region of theLobo parietal.

is traversed byhard bodyand shot down by himdorsalthalamusit's himcaudate nucleus tailinferolaterally. The floor of the central part also contains the thalamostriatal vein and the stria terminalis (fibers of thetonsil body) and the fornix inferomedially. Between the fornix and the thalamus is a groove known as thechoroid fissure. Not only do the choroid plexuses of the lateral ventricles live here, but this region, which is also complete with the ependyma and pia mater of each lateral ventricle, forms the medial boundary of the ventricles.

front horn

An anterior projection from the level of theinterventricular foramen of monroextends to thefrontal lobe. He is known as thefront hornand is also traversed by the corpus callosum. The frontal horns of each lateral ventricle are medially separated from each other by thetransparent partition(bridge between the corpus callosum superiorly and the fornix inferiorly) on the medial side. Anteriorly, the corpus callosum genu limits the space. Your floor contains theboss ofcaudate nucleus.

frontal horn of the lateral ventricle

frontal horn of the lateral ventricle

(Video) The ventricular system


Synonyms:anterior horn of the lateral ventricle

temporary horn

Hetemporary hornIt is the lowest aspect of the cavity. It extends intoLobo temporaland shelter yourchoroid plexus. Furthermore, it contains parts of thelimbic system. Hecaudate nucleus tailIt is adjacent to the temporal horn. The anterior part of its floor contains the feet of the hippocampus (anterior end of thethe hippocampuswhich looks like a lion's paw). The central part of the floor contains the dentate gyrus, the fimbriae of the hippocampus, thehippocampusand collateral eminence (proximal part of the collateral triangle) from medial to lateral.

occipital horn

Heoccipital hornit variably extends as a finger-like projection from the posterior aspect of the concavity of the ventricle. Your floor contains theassessments(related to the calcarine fissure) and thecollateral trine. This part of the lateral ventricle is surrounded by white matter.

temporal horn of the lateral ventricle

temporal horn of the lateral ventricle


Synonyms:Inferior horn of the lateral ventricle

third ventricle

The third ventricle is located in thediencephalic partof the brain. It is a narrow slit that is bounded laterally by themedial nuclei of each thalamus, hehypothalamusand previously interrupted by interthalamic adhesion. The roof of the cavity is formed anteriorly by thefornixand then to theesplenioof the corpus callosum.

third ventricle

third ventricle

(Video) Ventricles of the Brain | Anatomy Model


Anteriorly, space is limited by the lamina terminalis and theanterior commissure. Inferiorly, it continues into the infundibular and supraoptic recesses of the hypothalamus and the tubercle cinereum. Posterosuperiorly, the cavity extends to thepineal recesswith the Habenular commissure leaving its mark on the region.

Its lateral wall, on both sides, is indented by thehypothalamic sulcusIt runs from the foramen of Monro to the mouth of the cerebral aqueduct of Silvio. It should also be noted that theagujero de monroit provides a passage for the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles to enter the third ventricle. The plexus then resides in a groove inferior to the fornix and splenium of the corpus callosum. Posteroinferiorly, the posterior commissure extends slightly above the opening of the aqueduct of Silvio.

fourth ventricle

The fourth ventricle is the lowest of the four ventricles. It is situated inbrainstemwhere the ventricular surface of the hindbrain forms its floor (rhomboid fossa): inferior to themidbrain, afterponteanterior to the cerebellum and superior to themedulla oblongata.

Henuclei of various cranial nervesmake important impressions on the floor of the fourth ventricle. Equal-sized bumps, known asmiddle eminence, are observed on both sides of the ground extending craniocaudally. The left and right medial eminences are separated by adorsal median sulcus. At the bottom of the medial eminence, fibers from eachNervo facialproduce a larger chunk known asfacial colliculus.

fourth ventricle

the fourth ventricle


Lateral to the medial eminence and facial colliculus (on either side) is thelimiting sulcus; continues caudally to the end of the region. Helocus coeruleus(stress-sensitive pigmented area) is anterolateral to the medial eminence. Below the medial eminence are thehypoglossal triangle, hevagal triangleit's himan obstacle(in that craniocaudal order). A bundle of fibers calledmedullary striae, crosses the floor horizontally at its midpoint toward the foramen of Luschka.

The roof of the fourth ventricle is formed by the superior and inferior.medullary saildocerebellum. Laterally, the inferior cerebellar peduncles limit the space. On both sides there are openings (luschka holes) which flow into the quadruple cisterns. Likewise, in the lower roof of the fourth ventricle is another opening known as themagic holeIt empties into the cerebellum-medullary cistern.


chiasmatic cistern

chiasmatic cistern


(Video) Ventricles of the Brain: Anatomy and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Circulation

The subarachnoid space is described as atankat points where there are spaces between it and the underlying pia mater. At different points around the brain, cisterns are depicted in relation to adjacent anatomical landmarks. Notable cisterns include:

  • suprasellar or chiasmatic cistern
  • interpeduncular cistern
  • pre-pontine cistern
  • corpus callosum cistern

Test your knowledge about the ventricles of the brain with this quiz.

Flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Since CSF is produced in thelateral ventricle, fills the hole and then exits to enter thethird ventriclethroughinterventricular foramen of monro. In addition to CSF ​​from the lateral ventricle, CSF produced in the third ventricle leaves the space through theSilvio's Cerebral Aqueductto enter the fourth ventricle.

Very little CSF is produced in the fourth ventricle; however, together with that coming from the anterior ventricles, it leaves the fourth ventricle to enter the central canal of thespinal cordor for himluschka holesand foramen ofMagendieto enter the cisterns. CSF surrounds the brain and then leaves througharachnoid granulationsto enter thesuperior sagittal sinusand subsequently incorporated into the systemic circulation.


It is extremely important that CSF production is balanced by its removal from the cranial vault. Congenital anomalies related to the development of the interventricular ducts, that is, the aqueduct of Sylvius, can lead to obstruction of CSF flow. Consequently, this condition leads to an accumulation of CSF in the ventricles, callednon-communicating hydrocephalus. It should be noted that tumors or traumatic injuries that obstruct the interventricular pathway can also lead to non-communicating hydrocephalus. In other cases, when there is obstruction in the cisterns or dural sinuses, the accumulation of CSF is known ascommunicating hydrocephalus.

If this process occurs in an individual prior to fusion of the fontanelles, the patient may have aencephalomegaly(enlarged head). However, if the fontanels are fused, there is likely herniation of adjacent tissue. Other pathological presentations would be dependent on the nuclei and nerves being compressed by excess CSF.


All content published on Kenhub is reviewed by experts in medicine and anatomy. The information we provide is based on academic literature and peer-reviewed research.Kenhub does not provide medical advice.You can learn more about our content creation and review standards by reading ourcontent quality guidelines.


  • Kiernan, J., Barr, M. e Rajakumar, N. (s.f.).Sistema Nervoso Humano de Barr. 10ª ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer Company, pp. 85-86, 198-199, 256-258, 394-398.
  • Netter, F. (s.f.).Atlas of Human Anatomy. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Inc, pp. 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 116.


  • Arachnoid granulation (coronal view) - Paul Kim

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